Author Archives: ccarabin

Facebook: The Beginning of the End?

Last 24th of September, I logged in my Facebook account, as usual. A status quickly caught up my attention. One of my contacts was alerting us about a fail in Facebook security: our private messages dated from 2007 to 2009 were available on our wall, visible by everybody. I immediately checked my profile and understood that it was true. I could see private messages on my wall, as if they had been posted there by my contacts. While everybody could read the intimate conversations of their friends, people started to joke about the fact that this bug would lead to break-ups and divorces. This event brought back into my mind an old concern about the network: how does Facebook guarantee the privacy of people’s data?  Am I aware enough of what Facebook know about me, and of the use of this information? Finally, what are the risks of using Facebook?


Facebook was created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg. Reserved to Harvard’s students, the success of this social network was immediate. Today, Facebook is opened to every person who is at least 13 years old and who has an access to the Internet and an e-mail address. More than one billion people use it (data from October 1, 2012). Its popularity is due to the fact that it is considered as a way to increase socialization. Djahane Païenda, a 20-year-old French student at Sweet Briar College, in Virginia, explains why she loves it: “I use Facebook to be in contact with my family and friends all over the world. I love the fact that wherever I am, no matter how far I am from my relatives, I can always keep contact with them and see how they are doing in their lives and see them grow.” Sixtine Abrial, a 21-year-old student in Sweet Briar College, in Virginia, is not convinced: “I think it makes us believe that it leads us to a greater socialization because we have access to our friends’ information. We can see what they write, what they post, we can have an idea of where they were, and what they did at any time of the day, thus having a supposed better idea of the kind of life they lead. However, the time we spend on Facebook is time that we don’t spend socializing for real, as in face-to-face conversations. Socializing is, by definition, the action of talking to someone face-to-face, and not through a computer screen. En bref, Facebook leads to a limited socialization.”


Facebook recently scared its French users. Last September, after an update of its server, private messages dated from 2007 to 2009 were published on people’s walls. It rapidly spread terror among the Web users and French journalists made it headlines. Facebook France did not wait too long to refute this accusation. According to the team, people got confused because of a change in the interface, and that is all. The timeline and the private messages are hosted in separate servers, so they claimed that the mix of data between both would be impossible. The CNIL, the French commission which deals with computer science and controls the protection of data, took over the affair. The commission met the managers of Facebook France and concluded that there was no bug. They agreed with Facebook’s explanation of different interfaces. Alexia Bertrand, a 22-year-old student in computing, in France, does not understand: “This is crazy. I saw private messages on my wall. My friends saw private messages on their wall. One of my friends was telling me that she cheated on her boyfriend, and now, it is supposed to be something that she posted on my wall? This is ridiculous and I don’t understand how the CNIL agreed on this. For sure, I won’t use Facebook messages anymore.”


Since the international launch of the social network in the same year, Facebook policy about privacy has changed regularly. The last modification dates from the 20th of November 2012. The data use policy, available online, says that Facebook has an access to several types of data. First, it can consult the information that you give during the inscription process: the name, the date of birth, the e-mail address and the gender. It can also access to the data that someone puts on the network, the data that a contact puts about someone on the network, and more generally, to the totality of someone’s actions, like a click for instance. Facebook also receives metadata from photos and videos, which are further information, as the date or the time. Moreover, it receives the information relative to the device used to be connected to Facebook. If a person is connected via a computer, Facebook has an access to the Internet Service Provider, to the browser, to the IP address and to the localization. Finally, Facebook uses cookies which keep a record of the websites that a person visits, and data divulged by collaborators. A person can deactivate or suppress his account. The difference is that the deactivation does not erase the data, while the suppression erases them within 90 days. Nevertheless, Facebook adds that they keep some data, even when someone suppresses his or her account, without saying precisely which ones. All these information are sold to advertisers and are used to create more targeted advertisements, even if Facebook claims that they do not use them. There are three exceptions: Facebook communicate information if the person gives the permission to do it, if Facebook warns the person, or if the name of the contact has been removed from the data. Thanks to these data, Facebook can promise to companies that their advertisements will be targeted to reach the people that they judged as the most likely to buy their product. Europe v. Facebook, a group who protects the rights of the user on Facebook, has made an experiment to see precisely how much Facebook knows about a person. Since European people are free to ask to any company to have access to the data that they have about them, one of the member of Europe v. Facebook asked for hers in 2011. She created her Facebook account in 2007, and she received an 880-page document about her information kept by the social network.


As if it was not enough, the website allows people to have access to pictures and status of other people. It works as a search engine, a person finds another by using his or her e-mail address. It does not scan only Facebook, but the results come mainly from this social network. From the results, the website builds a profile with the interests and even the family and the neighborhood. It is not always accurate, but it gives the opportunity to anybody to learn things about anybody. The more active you are on the social networks, the more precise your profile will be.


In order to make people more active on the website, Facebook regularly launches new applications. They are created to look fun and to increase the value of your experiment with the social network. Nevertheless, the use of some applications can be dangerous. For instance, Foursquare uses geolocalisation to add on someone’s profile the place from where he or she is connected. People use it when they are proud to be somewhere and that they want their contacts to know about it. Tom Marcais, expert in new technologies and Internet at Sweet Briar College, explains the risks: “Private information can be used for many different purposes. Sharing your birth date might be nice to get tons of posts on your wall wishing “Happy Birthday”… But it could also be used to help steal your identity or password information. Telling your friends you’re on vacation having a blast might seem like a good idea… until you return home and find out that organized crime has used your information to rob your house while you were gone. Ranting about your boss might be good stress relief, until a jealous co-worker forwards your post to them.”


More and more people consider that the social network is unreliable and that it would be silly to stay on it. Laura Albanesi, a 19-year-old student at Sweet Briar College, suppressed her account six months ago, without any regret: “Facebook stopped me from enjoying life and people around me. It is like a drug: once you get addicted to it, it is hard to stop using it.” When she says that she does not have a Facebook account, people are surprised: “Facebook has become such a huge part of their life… But not of mine.” Jocelyn Jones, another student at Sweet Briar College who is 26, does not consider herself as addicted to the social network: “I spend days without checking it sometimes and when I finally do, there are too many new notifications to care about.” According to a German news website, some employers and psychologists consider the people who do not have a Facebook account as suspect. Not being on the social network would be synonym of wanting to hide something or having been banned from it because of an incorrect behavior.


Despite this fact, anti-Facebook movements rise all around the world. In 2010, two Canadian people launched the “Quit Facebook Day”, planned on the 31st of May. On their website, 40,387 people committed to quit Facebook. According to news agency AFP, 33,000 people really did it. There will never be a possibility to know if they came back on the social network later, but companies have understood that the anti-Facebook movement could be the next trend in the United States. sells t-shirts decorated with the “I’m not on facebook.” sentence. The Twitter account of this website collected funny tweets of people who have closed their Facebook account. Moreover, people use their blogs to speak about their own experience without Facebook.


In addition to these actions made by citizens, some companies have decided to create their own social network, which are intended to be Facebook’s rivals. The main one is Google+, launched by Google in June 2011. In December 2012, it had a total of 235 million of active users. According to Alexandre Joussier, a French student in Multimedia and Strategy, who has an account on both of the websites: “I think Facebook is definitely the ultimate social network. Google lauched G+ too late, and even if the number of users is important, there are plenty of ‘phantom-accounts’, which are registered users who have posted only once or twice. Google+ is bringing nothing more to me than Facebook, so it’s useless.”  Marcais is less categorical: “It is very hard to get people to switch social networks. It’s not impossible. Facebook came along and was able to successfully get people to switch to their platform from MySpace. But you really need to have a good reason to get people to switch. Right now, people are pretty satisfied with Facebook. They’re not likely to move… And social networks like Google Plus are only successful if your friends are there too. I predict that Google Plus will not be successful, and that Google will not try a 3rd attempt at creating a social network on their own. Instead, especially since Facebook is now publicly traded, they will likely just buy Facebook. Then, they will take all the successful things they’ve done with Google Plus – search integration, Google Apps integration, hangouts, etc. – and incorporate them into Facebook. In the end, you’ll have a better platform without making the users switch to another service.”


Google is not the only one which tries to compete with Facebook. In 2010, four students of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, in New York, started the Diaspora project on Kickstarter. Kickstarter is a platform when people promote a project and can receive funds by the web users. Diaspora is describing as a more secure-Facebook: it is a software with a delocalized server. Each person is responsible for the data which are public and the ones which are private, thanks to a system of “friendly key”. To have access to the private information of someone, this person has to give the key. All the data that require this key are encrypted. Their goal was to collect 10,000 dollars from the web users. Three months later, 6,479 people had donated a total of 200,000 dollars. The first version of Diaspora is supposed to be available at the end of December 2012.


However, Facebook is still the leader of the social network. In spite of the time that people spend on it and consider as wasted and the privacy’s issues, it is easy to become addicted to it. It is the case of Djahane Païenda: “I spend a lot of time on Facebook. I check it several times during the day, especially since I left France because it is an essential way for me to communicate with family and friends. As a matter of facts, I guess you could call me an addict.” Melanie Lower, a 22-year-old Spanish student at Sweet Briar College, does not think that she is too dependent on Facebook. Nevertheless, she admits that it is difficult to live without it: “I must recognize that before it wasn’t a problem to be without using the internet for a few days, something that is almost impossible now. I feel an urge to check out Facebook all the time. I love it!”


According to a 2010 research made by two students of the University of Georgia, Facebook allows people to fill two human societal needs: the need to belong and the need for self-presentation. If it is too hard to suppress an account, or if a person does not feel the need to do it, it is still fundamental to be able to redefine the parameters of an account. Marcais insists on the importance of being careful: “Always be careful what you post and share with others. Just because you’re only sharing it with a few people does not mean that they might not share your information with others. Before posting anything, ask yourself this question If I was to run for public office in 10 years, would I want my opponent to see this information? If the answer is no, then do not post it. Never post content in the heat of the moment, as you might regret it later on.” When it is publicly known that, six years ago, Mark Zuckerberg said that the users of Facebook were “dumb fucks” because they trusted him with their data, this advice will not fall on deaf ears.

$780,000: The Price of Your Virginity

On October 24th, 2012, Catarina Migliorini and Alexander Stepanov sold their virginity on the Internet. The former received $780,000 while her male counterpart got a bid of $3,000. This auction sale was organized by the Australian project Virgins Wanted and sparked controversy between those who consider it an empowerment of women and those who think this is the result of the extreme consumer-driven nature of our society.

Catarina Migliorini, 20 years old, will have her first sexual rapport in exchange for $780,000 with Natsu, a Japanese man, after a month of auction. More precisely, she will receive 90% of that amount and $20,000 for her participation in the Australian Virgins Wanted documentary. Directed by Justin Sisely, the film will follow people who decided to sell their virginity on the eponymous website. To justify her decision, Migliorini claimed that she needed that money to finance her education. Furthermore, she will give a part of it to a Brazilian charity.

On Sweet Briar College’s campus in Virginia, opinions on this matter diverge. Taneal Williams, an 18-year-old student who wants to stay a virgin until marriage, understands what led the young woman to this act: “Education is expensive. There are people who are going to university, and at night, they work in strip-clubs. I totally understand why she’s doing it and I don’t judged her for her decision.” Dr. Rosie Lewis, the president of The Sweet Peas, an association that promotes women’s wellness on SBC campus, is more critical of Migliorini: “It represents the continuing demise of morality. This overt action is bold, and no different than prostitution, which tends to be more covert. […] It is an act of desperation, or attention seeking. Her choice will have everlasting effects that will most likely include ridicule, continuing despair and vulnerability.” While prostitution is defined as having a sexual rapport in exchange for a remuneration, Migliorini does not see it that way: “If you only do it once in your life then you are not a prostitute, just like if you take one amazing photograph it does not automatically make you a photographer.”

For Deborah Durham, professor of anthropology at Sweet Briar College, the issue lies elsewhere: “I’m shocked, but not really, at the producers of the film who coerced the young woman and man through money, and at the audience that delights in the glance into forbidden and bad behaviors.” Taneal Williams adds that “Sex does sell,” but prefers to see the situation as an empowerment of the woman: “There are people nowadays who are losing their virginity to someone that they don’t care about. So, it’s like she’s taking control of it.”

Brent Shea, professor in sociology at Sweet Briar College, goes one step further: “Some sociologists emphasize the sexual agency of women, seeing involvement in sex work as a choice that an adult woman can make, and would even support decriminalizing it. […] Women in traditional patriarchal societies are subservient to their fathers and husbands, making this woman’s behavior highly transgressive of gender-specific social norms in some countries.”

This may be one of the reasons why the focus is not on Alexander Stepanov, a 21-year-old Russian who also sold his virginity on the website. He got $3,000 from Nene B., a Brazilian woman. Professor Shea explains this price difference of $770,000: “We still live in a society in which people denigrate sexual inexperience in men.” Moreover, the website provided 32 half-naked pictures of Catarina Migliorini while Alexander Stepanov was represented by 4 pictures of him, fully clothed.

Professor Shea does not believe that this story will affect society: “There are so few men anyplace with $780,000 to spend and fewer yet who would want or even need to spend it in this way. …Also, romantic love still exists as an ideal in our society, making this crassly commercialized coupling appear second rate at best.

For Williams, “There are too many sexual transmissible diseases out there, too many chances of pregnancy.” However, a contract has been made: the meeting will last an hour and will not be taped, they will have to use a condom, and kisses and any kind of propositions are forbidden. Furthermore, they will have to be sober and they will pass a medical and a judiciary control. Catarina Migliorini will have to supply a medical certificate of virginity but for Alexander Stepanov, Nene B. will have to trust only his word.

The teaser of the documentary:


The European Union, Controversial Winner of the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize

On October 12th, the European Union was awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize causing great controversy. On one hand, the award has been welcomed by people who think the EU did an impressive job at avoiding war on its territory. On the other hand, critics argue the Norwegian Committee should not forget the EU is still struggling with the crisis and the search for a commune identity.

The Nobel Peace Prize is a tradition: almost each year since 1901, the Norwegian Committee awards people or organizations that fight for peace, freedom, and human rights. This year, the European Union received the Prize. As a political and economic partnership within 27 countries of Europe, the EU succeeded in avoiding war on its territory for six decades. Laura Blessing, professor of media and politics at Sweet Briar College, agrees with this decision: “European nations have a Shakespearean history of bloodletting and near-constant warfare. This makes the period of peace with the supranational authority of the EU as historically unusual. They have helped solve a thorny collective action problem. The recent recession and insufficient mechanisms for member states that take risky economic actions have sorely tried the economic ties that bind the EU. But this is almost assuredly why the prize is being given: to register a hope that the EU can endure, and even thrive, despite these recent difficulties.”

But not everybody shares this thought. Looking at the recent events, Carola Haese, a German student at Sweet Briar College, believes that “Other regions would have deserved it more, like the Maghreb”, the region which includes Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. As a reminder, the Tunisian revolution led to the resignation of the ex-President Ben Ali in 2011 followed by democratic elections.

Everything was not perfect for the EU this year. It has been stricken by the economic crisis, and this could restrain its desire to promote fraternity between its countries. The Erasmus program, which makes it easier for students to study abroad, may be cut because of these financial issues.

For Melanie Lower, studying abroad from Spain, at Sweet Briar College, the Prize will not change anything: “People won’t invest more money in the EU because they have the Nobel Prize.” And more, critics see irony in this decision because Norway refused to join the EU twice, after referendums.

This is not the first time the award has led to controversy. Three years ago, the President of the United States, Barack Obama, won the Nobel Peace Prize, ten months after his inauguration. The Committee wanted to recognize his position on nuclear weapons and his speeches advocating peace between Israel and Palestine.

Laura Blessing understands the comparison made with this year’s awarding: “I think both are similar in that they express a hope for future action. But the EU has been a major force for peace for the past 60-something years, and Barack Obama most obviously has not been. I think his winning the prize was politically awkward for a number of people, with Mr. Obama at the top of that list.”

The 10 million Swedish Kronor prize (about 1.5 million dollars) will help the EU’s challenges: to get out of the crisis and to establish itself as an economic superpower, like The United States and China.

Meanwhile, this award has been a trend topic on Twitter since the announcement. The tweetos @OllieRelfe, an English entrepreneur in social networking who is followed by 1,160 people, sees its own interest in this decision: “Seeing as I’m European, perhaps I should now list the Nobel prize on my CV!”

The Norwegian Committee explains its choice here.



The Sweet Tones 2.0

“Sway”, “I won’t give up”, “Shenandoah”, “Anthem”, “Harry”, “ForGood” and “L.O.V.E.”: on the 17th of September, The Sweet Tones, one of the music-oriented tap-clubs of Sweet Briar College, finally revealed the list of its Fall 2012 babies, named after songs. This is a tradition, and this event celebrates the beginning of a year devoted to new challenges for the singing group.

The Sweet Tones is one of the tap-clubs of Sweet Briar College, in Virginia. Their members revisit songs from all generations and interpret them a-capella during public representations. Each year, and sometimes twice a year, new members are recruited to keep the singing group diverse and vocally rich. “I don’t think we had a single person this year who couldn’t have been worked with us,” said Catherine “Crazy” Ramos, the president of The Sweet Tones since late August. And yet, they made their choice.

On the 17th of September, around 10 pm, all the college could hear The Sweet Tones voices through the dorms of the lucky girls who had been “tapped”, which means chosen. The next morning, the names of the newly tapped members were displayed on a huge sheet which was covering Prothro’s windows. Ally “Anthem” Booth, Katherine “Shenendoah” Brown, Emma “Harry” Kiely, Abby “I won’t give up” Knaycar, Djahane “Sway” Paienda, Haley “ForGood” Reeves and Miranda “L.O.V.E.” Tyler are the survivors from the two-week Fall 2012 selection. According to Brittany “All My Loving” Griffith, they will make up for the loss of the graduated ex-members and fill the group with a “new energy”. She remembers how joining The Sweet Tones changed her conception of college life: “It’s easy to meet a lot of people you wouldn’t have necessarily hung out with and that goes for all tap club on the campus. But specifically that, because you have this one connection to music and I feel that music is something that you can really connect with people over different cultures.”

“Sway” Paienda wanted to join them desperately: “I’m passionate about music. I’ve been singing for a long time and I wanted to sing with other people current music and to have a different approach. I’ve never sung a-capella music with several people. ”

This year, 48 students signed up for the auditions, 42 came and sang in front of the members and 14 impressed them enough to be a part of the call-back session. The group was looking for “somebody who fits well with the group, who loves music and then, on top of that, somebody who has got a musical talent,” said “Crazy” Ramos. How can someone make a difference? For “All My Loving” Griffith, preparation is key: “Just picking a song on a day isn’t the best thing to do. But if you have a song that you really love and that you can sing any day in the car, in the shower, wherever you are, just blast it out, go for it! Do that in an audition because a lot of it is personality and owning it.” But the candidates may not have the opportunity to put this advice in practice for a long time: the president announced that there won’t be any auditions next Spring, unlike last year when girls were tapped twice.

As of now, The Sweet Tones are going to focus on their new projects. First of all, the 18 voices want to diversify their songbook by singing more top-40 songs and emphasizing the beat-boxing in their a-capella performances. But the two main surprises of this year are the creation of their website and the launch of a service of singing telegrams. “We are going to start offering that for 5 to 7 dollars, maybe 10 dollars, depending on what you want us to do… And just have that offer to students on campus and to the faculty on campus,” explains “Crazy” Ramos. As their objective is to increase their visibility, Sweet Briar College better be ready to hear more and more from this new generation of music junkies.

The 2nd presidential debate on Twitter

I choose this infographic for several reasons. First, it represents an original topic: the perception of the second presidential debate through the Twitter activity. By analyzing the tweets posted during last-night debate, this infographic completely describes the nuances of the Twittosphere, confronting the two candidates, Barack Obama and Mitt Romney.

It uses drawings, graphics which compare few data, different kinds of graphics, and percentages which are more representative than numbers. All these characteristics make it easy to read and to understand.

It gives different kinds of information about the effect of the candidates’ speeches: a list of the main words associated to each candidate and a measure of the feelings that people have about each candidate (positive, mixed or negative). And more, it gives information about the Twittosphere itself: what gender was the most active, what media tweeted the most and their impact on the discussion through the number of retweets, and the favorite topics of the debate through the list of the recurrent hash tags and mentions.

Moreover, this infographic is aesthetically attractive, thanks to the use of bright colors, pictures and the fact that important numbers and titles are emphasized.

To finish, the fact that its source and its date of creation are indicated adds credibility.

The Washington Post front page

The front page of The Washington Post website shows evidence of bias toward the liberal party and more precisely, Barack Obama.

The first news on the website is about Barack Obama. This is the first name that Internet users can see. He is in the headlines. The website highlights him by putting this news on the top of the page and by writing it in a bigger font than the rest.  Both Obama and Romney’s names appear 10 times on the front page. This demonstrates the will of the editorial team to cover both of their current affairs.

Nevertheless, there is also a difference in the vocabulary used for the candidates. On the one hand, the words used by the journalists in Romney’s news have a negative connotation: “dramatic”, “problem”, “brutal”, weakens”, “uninsured”, “incoherence”, “flaws”. On the other hand, the words used for Barack Obama are more positive: “defense”, “strength”. This fact implies that the news which deal with Romney are more critical. The journalists report them by focusing on his counterproductive actions. Some headlines are explicit: “Romney’s immigration incoherence”, “Republicans’ real problem” for instance. Moreover, it looks like they favor the report of facts for Obama and the interpretation and judgment for Romney.

The choice of the videos which are available on the front page also express bias. Romney’s video is entitled: “Mitt Romney’s path to victory appears to narrow” while Obama’s video is entitled: “President Obama addresses the United Nations General Assembly”. They choose to present news about his presidential functions, about his status. On the contrary, for Romney, they focus on their point of view of the campaign of the other candidate.

” The suppressed tobacco story ” – George Seldes

This article belongs to the journalism of verification for several reasons. First, the journalist George Seldes gives precise facts : they are dated and localized. He uses a lot of quotations, with the name and the position of the sources. He also confronts several sources for a same fact : for example, he compares what affirms The Herald Tribune with the report of The Federated Press about the diffusion of the tobacco story. This brings credibility to the article.

Moreover, the journalist explains his motivations : through this article, he denounces the media dependence and venality about tobacco advertising. In order to prove what he claims (“Smoking shortens life.”), he uses scientific statements and quotes doctors. The extracts from scientific newspapers are composed of a lot of tables and numbers. The tables are different but support the same idea : it is easier for the readers to understand and validate the information.

George Seldes also gives an explanation about Dr Pearl’s method for his survey. This survey is an important argument for the journalist and he makes it credible by quoting the doctor who explains how he chose his cases.

The journalist doesn’t hesitate to give the names of the newspapers which suppressed the story. He also uses a SEC report with the precise names and numbers of the cigarette companies and their advertising spending.

He stays prudent with his affirmations (“If any newspaper used it”) but he judges the comportment of the other editorial teams : “ […] for any newspaper which had the courage to publish anything about such matters. “ ; “ […] the labor press (which is not venal […])”. The facts still are first. He gives a conclusion and an explanation of them but after questioning the assumptions and the veracity of the facts.

Through the article, he mostly uses the active voice : “Most doctors believe that […]”, “Six cigarette companies grossed $200,000,000 in 1937”, “In New York the Herald Tribune, Sun, News, Mirror, Post and Journal-American suppressed this story”.  This gives the reader an impression of strength. The article is easier to read and to understand.

” Lynching of innocent men ” – Ida B. Wells

Since the lede of an article is supposed to be its first paragraph, the lede of Lynching of innocent men is a very long one. I still find it attractive for several reasons. It begins with an attack to the mob which brings strength, character and creates curiosity. As a reader, the question which comes into my mind after the first sentence is : “Why ?”. Ida B. Wells uses an anecdote to set up the mood. She speaks about the first event as if it is a story : she respects the chronological order of the facts. Other elements contribute to the fact that I want to read the rest of the article. There is no transition between the lede and the rest of the article, so I am already in the story. Plus, the end of the lede isn’t the end of the first anecdote. I ask myself “What’s next ?”. Moreover, this lede is very specific. As the article is a compiling of different stories which denounce the same issue, the lede just answers to “Who?” (the white mob and the black men) and “What?” (the unreliability of the mob’s punishment). For me, it is enough because each story has approximately the same context and the details will come through each anecdote.

There aren’t a lot of quotes in this article. The transcript of the dispatches is very long but it gives details. It is also more neutral than the rest of the text because it focuses only on the facts. The other quotes are from a man who charged a black man and from two black men. They bring intensity to the text. Their words have an impact on the story : they create emotion (pathos). The majority of the direct quotes are from the black men’s words. The mob doesn’t have any direct quotation and is seen as a group, not as individual persons. The quotes give credit to the victims. The author focuses on their point of view.

We can also see it through the vocabulary. On the first hand, the author uses the vocabulary of “horror” and negative words to describe the mob : “the absolute unreliability and recklessness of the mob”, “the ferocity of the mob”, “these savage orgies”, “heavily armed”, “barbarously”, “shockingly”. On the other hand, the vocabulary used to describe the black men is the opposite : “entirely innocent”, “unoffending”, “victim”, “orderly, peaceable boy”, “victims of Lynch Law”. The journalist uses very strong words and is a little bit cynical : “ […] a Negro (who dared) to defend his home) “.  The journalist judges these actions. She is totally biased. She gives the facts but doesn’t explain them : she condemns them.